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北京导游词:六大景点英文导游词之十三陵

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北京导游词

北京导游词考试

Atadistanceof50kmnorthwestofBeijingstandsanarc-shapedclusterofhillsfrontedbyasmallplain.Hereiswhere13emperorsoftheMingdynasty(1368-1644)wereburied,andtheareaisknownastheMingTombs.

Constructionofthetombsstartedin1409andendedwiththefalloftheMingDynastyin1644.Inover200yearstombswerebuiltoveranareaof40squarekilometres,whichissurroundedbywallstotalling40kilometres.EachtombislocatedatthefootofaseparatehillandislinkedwiththeothertombsbyaroadcalledtheSacredWay.ThestonearchwayatthesouthernendoftheSacredWay,builtin1540,is14metreshighand19metreswide,andisdecoratedwithdesignsofclouds,wavesanddivineanimals.

BeijingservedasthenationalcapitalduringtheYuan,MingandQingdynasties.UnlikeMingandQingrulerswhoallbuiltmassivetombsforthemselves,Yuanrulersleftnosimilarburialgrounds.Whythedifference?

Thishastodowithpeople''''sdifferentviewsondeath.BeijingnomadscamefromtheMongoliansteppe.MongolswhoestablishedtheYuanDynastyheldthebeliefthattheyhadcomefrom:earth.theyadoptedasimplefuneralmethod:thedeadwasplacedinsideahollowednanmutree,whichwasthenburiedundergrassland.Growthofgrasssoonleftnotracesofthetombs.

Bycontrast,duringtheMingDynastyestablishedbyHanChinesecomingfromanagriculturalsocietyincentralChina,peoplebelievedtheexistenceofanafter-world,wherethedead"lived"alifesimilartothatoftheliving.Mingemperor,therefore,hasgrandmausoleumsbuiltforthemselves.Qingrulersdidlikewise.

StoneArchway

ThestonearchwayatthesouthernendoftheSacredWay,builtin1540,is14metreshighand19metreswide,andisdecoratedwithdesignsofclouds,wavesanddivineanimals.Well-proportionedandfinelycarved,thearchwayisoneofthebestpreservedspecimensofitskinkintheMingDynasty.ItisalsothelargestancientstonearchwayinChina.

StelePavilion

TheStelePavilion,notfarfromtheGreatPalaceGate,isactuallyapavilionwithadouble-eavedroof.OnthebackofthesteleiscarvedpoetrywrittenbyEmperorQianlongoftheQingDynastywhenhevisitedtheMingTombs.

SacredWay

TheSacredWayinsidethegateoftheMingTombislinedwith18pairsofstonehumanfiguresandanimals.Theseincludefoureachofthreetypesofofficials:civil,militaryandmeritoriousofficials,symbolizingthosewhoassisttheemperorintheadministrationofthestate,plusfoureachofsixiypesofanimals:lion,griffin,camel,elephant,unicornandhorse.

YonglingTomb

Yongling,builtin1536,isthetombforEmperorShizong,ZhuHoucong(1507-1566).Hestayedinpowerfor45years.

DinglingTomb

TheDinglingTombisthetombofEmperorWanli(reigned1573-1619),the13themperoroftheMingDynasty,whosepersonalnamewasZhuYijun,andofhistwoempresses,XiaoDuanandXiaoJing.Thetombwascompletedinsixyears(1584-1590),itoccupiesatotalareaof1,195squaremetersatthefootofDayuMountainsouthwestoftheChanglingTomb.

MaolingTomb

EmperorXianzong,ZhuJianshen,andhisthreeempressesareentombedwithinMaoling.ZhuJianshen(1447-1487)wasthefirstsonofEmperorYingzong.Hestayedinpowerfor22years.

Wehavecoveredsomeofthemostsignificanttombsofthe13Mingtombsinthetour.Ifyouarealsointerestedintheothertombs,thebestwayistocomeandexperienceyourself.ChanglingTomb

ChanglingisthetombofemperorYongle(reigned1403-1424),thethirdemperoroftheMingDynastywhosepersonalnamewasZhuDi,andofhisempress.Builtin1413,themausoleumextendsoveranareaof100,000squaremetres.Thesoultower,whichtellspeoplewhosetombitis,restsonacircularwallcalledthe"cityoftreasures"whichsurroundstheburialmound.The"cityoftreasures"atChanglinghasalengthofmorethanakilometre.

UndergroundPalace

TheundergroundpalaceatDinglingTombconsistsofanantechamber,aceniralchamberandarearchamberplustheleftandrightannexes.Oneofthepicturesshowsthecentralchamberwherethesacrificialutensilsareondisplay.Twomarbledoorsaremadeofsingleslabsandcarvedwithlife-sizehumanfigures,flowersandbirds.Morethan3,000articleshavebeenunearthedfromthetumulus,themostpreciousbeingthegoldencrownsoftheemperorandhisqueen.

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